Evolution of Bank Routing Numbers

Have you ever wondered what that 9 figure number is in the bottom left hand side of your bank notes? Plenty of people have this question. As a matter of fact, about 50,000 people search for routing number related terms in search engine listings every month.

The routing number is also described as a transit number or ABA number. It is comprised of a 9 figure code and it is utilized in the United States of America. The individual design of this number is to determine the depository financial institution or financial organization from which the cash referred to on the cheque is to be withdrawn.

With so many banking companies in existence nowadays, this number is very helpful to the depository financial institution taking a deposition of a check in determining where they need to get the money. It was at one time a difficult undertaking to determine where bank checks were written from. In fact, this difficulty has historically been exploited by criminals to commit fraud against banks.

Therefore, this numerical system was formulated to streamline and clarify the procedure for clearing houses and for banks. This has helped in the reliable transferal of money between banks on behalf of their clients for years now.

This system has even been developed. The serialized number makes it easier for computers to understand and apply the information and as recently as 2004 it has been used to transmit electronic bank checks also known as echecks or EFTs (electronic funds transfer). This started out with the passage of the Check 21 Act which has helped to reduce the reliance on paper bank checks by making it allowable to make digital copies of bank checks.

This handy number system dates all the way back to 1910 when the American Bankers Association (ABA) organised it to help interbank relations. It has been used ever since to help the banking industry to work smoothly.

Can you envisage trying to keep track of over 26 thousand different banking companies that issue bank checks? As a banker you would be overcome with work trying to determine where to get your money! This is precisely the problem that the ABA has successfully helped to solve since 1910.

About 26,895 routing numbers are actively put to use in the United States of America today. This is because every financial organization must have one by law. That means that every depository financial institution is required to have an ABA number assigned to them before they open their doors.

The cheque routing number is an important development in the story of banking. It has served to improve the efficiency of banks. It has assisted in improving the security of banks. It has even helped improve the manner in which we transfer money around the net.

Learn more about the check routing number system.

Famous Scottish Entrepreneurs

Invention and entrepreneurship are concepts that are synonymous with Scotland. Scotland has a long standing tradition of producing world renowned inventors and entrepreneurs. The invention of the steam engine, television and penicillin can all be attributed to Scottish inventors and in this article I would like to highlight some of the most famous Scottish entrepreneurs of recent years.

Arnold Clark

Sir Arnold Clark grew up in Glasgow and joined the RAF in 1944, aged 17. He rose quickly through the ranks eventually becoming a Corporal and a Motor Mechanics Instructor. Upon leaving the RAF, Clark began buying and selling cars, and opened his first showroom in 1954 in Glasgows Park Road. Arnold Clark Automobiles is now the largest car dealership in Scotland, with over 145 car dealerships throughout the UK.

Michelle Mone

Michelle Mone OBE is the co-owner of MJM International and creator of Ultimo. She grew up in Glasgow and began her corporate career with Labatt Brewers. She rose quickly through the company and was running the Sales and Marketing department by the time she was 20. In 1996, came up with the idea to create Ultimo after wearing an uncomfortable bra to a dinner dance. Today Ultimo is one of the UKs leading designer lingerie brands.

Sir David Murray

Sir David Murray was born in Ayr in 1954 and educated at Ayr Academy, Fettes College and Broughton high School. By the age of 23 Murray had set up the metal company, Murray International Metals Limited. The Murray Group has expanded to include a wide range of industries including property, call centres, venture capital and mining.

Sir Brian Souter

Sir Brian Souter is another famous Scottish entrepreneur. Sir Brian Souter started his working life as student bus conductor while studying at University. Upon finishing University, Sir Brian Souter began working with Arthur Andersen, a leading chartered accountancy firm. In 1980, using his fathers redundancy money, Sir Brian Souter established Stagecoach Group with his sister. Thirty years later Stagecoach is one the largest transport companies in the world with 13,000 buses, coaches, trains and trams, employing over 30,000 employees worldwide. Sir Brian Souter also founded Souter Investments and the Souter Charitable Trust.

Interface Financial Group- A Franchise Opportunity

Interface Financial is not only about a unique invoice discounting system; it is also about a franchise opportunity for you! The opportunity that IFG wants to provide home workers with is unmatchable. Not only will franchisees get superb returns on their capital but they will also be able to expand and grow their franchise at their own convenience with little marketing costs. IFG will continuously provide you with plenty of support and guidance which will provide you with guaranteed success as Interface Financials will let you in onto two decades of business secrets!

The marketplace for invoice discounting is a part of the financial services of factory. This is one of the markets which continue to grow at a healthy rate irrespective of the world wide recession. The lower end of the sales volume scale, which happens to be Interfaces unique market niche, has been growing healthily for quite some time. Furthermore, Interface has been successful in working with smaller newly emerging businesses. Hence there is absolutely no need for you to worry about the market situation of your to-be-born franchise.

On the other hand, are you starting to wonder about how competent you are to become a part of IFG? Maybe you are concerned about your lack of a financial background; worry not! IFG will provide all its franchisees with high quality training by means of self-study, field training, formal training and other web-based training modules. In addition to this there will also be an IFG coaching program which will ensure that you leave the program with the ability only to succeed!

There are plenty of more reasons why you should join hands with Interface. After all, IFG has always made its way into the top of the Entrepreneur Magazines Franchise 500 rating list, Americas Top Global franchise rankings and Home Based franchise ranking. The Franchise Research Institute has also classified Interface as a World Class Franchise.

All this is just an investment away. Start right away and become a part of a key financial service industry. Do not let yourself work for money; within the convenience of your home and with superb returns for a small startup, let money work for you! Join IFG today to become part of a franchise which is one of the best of the best.

The 30 Day Challenge For Entrepreneur Success

The moment that you begin with your new online business you are taking the challenge and beginning a new part of your life. Entrepreneur success is about making changes to your habits and your to your thinking, so when you take the 30 day challenge with your online business you set the seeds for success in you.

Habits take about 30 days to become a part of our new way, and by building sturdy entrepreneur habits you set off the process of creating a solid foundation for yourself and for your business. Make some time in deciding what you want to do and achieve over the next 30 days in your online business.

Take the 30 day challenge and set your goals for your entrepreneur success. Make an action plan of what you will to gain knowledge of and begin to master and build an action list of what exactly you will do to develop your online business. It is the process of daily action in the pursuit of your goals that leads to business success.

The very process of starting a new business means you expect to set up a new way of life. Make the new way a way of self empowerment. By educating yourself as much as you work on your business, you will be creating the new habits that are critical factors for entrepreneur success. You can reach whatever you believe you can, and the same applies to you will fail at whatever you believe you will, so by settingstrong empowering beliefs and following your action plans you will lead yourself towards the outcomes that you want. Positive thoughts and actions are the critical success factors.

Adopt change, welcome the change that will occur. The more that you prepare the changes the more you will feel in control of what is happening. We all are happy in ourselves to the degree that we have control of what is happening around us. By organising yourself for the next 30 days you will be taking control of your new habits and actions and at the same time taking control of your new business.

Entrepreneur success is a habit, take the challenge and shape a forward momentum in your life. By changing how you see yourself and how you behave you will at the same time change how others see and believe in you. That will change the outcome with your business.

Paypal Cash Money – Learn How To Make Your Own Paypal Cash Money Fast

Many people may be known of Paypal as one of the world’s best online secured credit-card payment facilitators. It has supported over many countries around the world for its users to receive money or take money or even to make money by bringing more businesses to PAYPAL. Due to its convenience online service, you no longer have to queue at bank to pay your telegraphictransfer. Whether you are an online merchant or a buyer, PAYPAL is one of the best ways to make your transaction secured. Of course, you can also earn paypal cash too.
Paypal allows shoppers to:
Choose to pay using your credit and debit card, or bank account.
Make secure purchases without exposing your credit card number or bank information.
Using PayPal to shop on eBay or thousands of merchants worldwide.
Paypal allows sellers to:
Make credit and debit card transactions and bank account payments for low transaction fees.
Use Paypal to your website instantly
Gain access to a growing user list with millions of active online shoppers.
Good Points of Using Paypal:
No monthly or start-upfees or cancellation fees orno minimum payments. Lower transaction fees than other merchant accounts
Quick setup – Sign up and get started in minutes. No extra software or hardware needed
Paypal is an market leader in fraud prevention.It has 60%-70% lower fraud loss rates than other merchant accounts
Wide Network of buyers – One in three online buyers in the U.S. has a PayPal account, and over 58,000 users worldwide sign up for PayPal each day.
Earning Paypal Cash Money
Well, at this point you are wondering what you’ll need to do to make all this PayPal cash money. Well, continue to reading this post to discover one of the fastest way to make Paypal money fast. For those of you are unfamiliar with Paypal, you need to know that Paypal allows any publisher to make as much as $1,000 per each person you refer to PayPal.
Upon signing up the Paypal Merchant Referral Bonus Program, you are able to receive a portion of the transaction amounts of people you referred to PayPal. Once your affiliate supplier has used PayPal and receive a total of $200.00, you immediately receive an initial bonus of $1.00. Additionally, you will get 0.5% of the total amount of their payments for 12 months, up to $1,000. At this point you must introduce Paypal in your blog or website. Write about PayPal and give users unique information about it. Telling to people the pros and cons about PayPal, how you can use Paypal to earn your paypal cash from it.
This is just only one of the ways to make paypal money. If you are not contented to just wait and make only maximum US$1,000 for each referral over a period of time, then check this Fast Track Cash out. It has the most proven and advanced techniques to make your paypal cash money faster.

Tour Atlantas Federal Reserve Bank Monetary Museum

The Federal Reserve Bank in midtown Atlanta welcomes visitors who would like to tour its Monetary Museum and Visitor Center exhibits. Anyone who has ever wondered just what goes on in a Federal Reserve Bank will find the museum interesting and informative. The self guided tour chronicles the story of money from various forms of barter to modern day e-commerce. The museum also relates the history of banking in the U.S.

The Monetary Museum has interesting examples of what people through the centuries have used as barter, from wampum to Chinese shoe money to gold nuggets. There is an outstanding collection of historical monetary artifacts, including rare coins and currency from around the world as well as some Confederate money. Displays also include an actual gold bar worth $500,000 and a real $100,000 bill.

The Visitor Center has interactive touch screen exhibits which show the role of the Federal Reserve Bank in America. Multimedia exhibits and films explain how the Federal Reserve maintains the stability of the countrys financial system and the economy, and how the Federal Reserve regulates banks. The interactive Bankers Challenge game demonstrates how banks earn profits and manage risk. Through windows in the Federal Reserves cash processing center, visitors will be able to watch the process as robots and Federal Reserve personnel handle large amounts of cash. Millions of dollars are counted and sorted every day. Visitors will see how worn out currency is shredded, and watch as the cash bus goes back and forth all day. Even children will enjoy some of the interactive exhibits and the cash bus. Upon leaving the Visitor Center, guests are invited to take home an unusual free souvenir, a bag of shredded money.

The Atlanta Federal Reserve Bank is located at 1000 Peachtree Street NE. It is a hidden gem in midtown, just a five minute walk from the Midtown MARTA Station and across the street from the Margaret Mitchell House. One of the best things about the Federal Reserve Bank Museum is that admission is free. Visitors to the Federal Reserve Bank must pass through security before entering the building, and at least one adult in the party should have a photo ID. No cameras or bags are allowed, but free lockers are available. The Federal Reserve Bank is open Monday through Friday from 9am-4pm. The facility is not usually crowded, and the museum makes a great stop for people visiting downtown and midtown Atlantas other attractions.

Implications Of Money Laundering

Money laundering is referred as to make to proceeds of the crime appear respectable. The whole world is now taking serious actions against money laundering.
In United Kingdom, the parliament has passed money laundering act. This act has been influenced on different parliament acts. These are:
Drugs Trafficking offences Act 1986
Criminal Justice Act 1993
Terrorism Act 2000
Anti Terrorism Crime Security Act 2001
Proceeds of Crime Act 2002

Money laundering is based on different crimes. It is just the end form of different crimes. Some criminal offences are mentioned below which are included in Proceeds of crime Act:
Laundering: Acquisition, possession or use of the proceeds of crime

Failure to report: If somebody fails to disclose knowledge or suspicion of money laundering then he will be liable for crime.

Tipping off: Somebody who disclose information to any person who is involved in some crime then he is also liable and contributor in crime.

For example a bank manager who see any illegal transaction then he should declare this information to money laundering reporting officer, before the transaction took place or right after the transaction. Otherwise he will be investigated and failure to disclose will lead him to crime.

There are three major phases in money laundering which are mentioned below:
Placement
Change the initial disposal of the illegal activity into legal business activity.
Layering:
It means to put different layers to hide the original proceedings.
Integration:
After placement and putting different layers, the money has the appearance of legal funds.

Accountants can play a vital role in reducing the chances of money laundering. They have to be very careful while preparing accounts of company because accountants are liable to disclose any illegal activity inside the company. Now accountants have to be followed many regulations which are set by IASB. It is mentioned in these regulations that accountants will be asked of any suspected transaction.

If somebody has been involved in the above offences then he may have to face serious penalties. The British Law sets out the following penalties in relation to money laundering:

1. Person who is directly related to money laundering can be penalized 14 years imprisonment and/or fine.
2. A person who is responsible for failure to report information may be given 5 years imprisonment.
3. 5 years imprisonment is given for tipping off a suspected launderer; it means suspected launderer must not be alerted.

Basic Requirements Of Banking Jobs In India

The entire global economy is going through a tough phase now. A lot of people have already lost their jobs over the last couple of years and many more are living in the fear of losing their own. Quite interestingly enough, almost all the job cuts have happened in the private sector; there are very few government employees who have actually lost their jobs. Bank jobs in India are definitely better compared to the corporate jobs then it comes to job security, average salary and also annual benefits.

If you take a look at the list of Indian Banking jobs 2012, you would see that almost every banking departments has a couple of vacancies. Almost all the jobs that are featured in the list of Indian government 2012 require you to be an Indian citizen, have no criminal records and be above the age of 18 years. So, these are the basic qualities that are needed in a candidate who wants to apply for all such vacancies in India. Let us now take a look at the educational and other requirements:

Educational Qualifications

As told earlier there are a variety of different banking jobs available in the list of Indian banking jobs 2012. The educational qualifications required for different posts in India are definitely different, but in most cases you are required to be at least a graduate in order to be eligible to apply for a post. Most jobs in India would require you to go through a written examination followed by an interview process. If you get selected, you would be put on training for a stipulated period of time during which you would be eligible for a fraction of the salary and benefits offered against the post. There are some job vacancies that would require you to have technical qualifications such as a degree in engineering or a diploma in applied sciences. In almost all the cases your degree or diploma should be verifiable and should have been awarded by an UGC recognize University or institute. For graduate level teaching jobs you need to have a postgraduate degree or doctorate on the subject of your choice in order to be eligible.

Experience With The Indian Army

If you have military working experience you would be eligible for almost all posts that are featured in the list of Indian banking jobs 2012. Most banking departments have a couple of reserved seats for ex-Army professionals and as long as you have proof of your service at the Army, you would not have to worry about the age limits specified by different banking jobs in India. There are some vacancies in India that give preference to ex-Army professionals; so, if you are serving the Indian army, you might as well think of taking up another job with a govt department after retiring from the Army!

An increasing surge of jobs in the banking sector

These days wherever you turn it is hard to avoid hearing people talk about the financial crisis and its implications. Almost all news items contain some links to it, and within employment issues the consequences are still very much felt. But has the recession had any impact on the way job seekers perceive working within banking or finance roles?

Despite the crisis people still seem to be very keen to work within banking or finance. Amongst the majority of the population it is safe to say that the reputation of banks has taken a hit, but amongst job seekers working for a bank or a financial institution remains very much desirable. Jobs for these companies are considered to be very prestigious as they still have the best technologies, the best systems and the best rewards compared to other sectors. Because of this the highest achievers still look to work for banks or financial institutions.

What else attracts people to work in finance or banking roles? Relative to other sectors these types of roles tend to have more responsibility and involve a lot of problem solving skills. Besides that they get a chance to work with people, there are opportunities to travel and to go out for meetings, and these roles also tend to offer possibilities for fast advancement. All these factors combined make these roles very challenging and interesting for the highest achievers.

So what has changed within the banking and finance sector? There seems to be a change in the expectations of employees that broadly run along the line of the generations. You could say that the employee profile is slowly evolving from what is called -Generation X’ to -Generation Y’. Within these generations the expectations they have of their employers are very different. Generation X will want to know -What is in it for me’, while Generation Y expects great workplace flexibility as well as wanting extremely fast progression and are less willing to work their way up slowly.

The profile of employees within the banking and finance sectors is changing, however this is due to a change in mentality that runs alongside the generations more than being caused by the financial crisis.

Reuben Dennis is a PRO with a leading service sector company and for more on London jobs she recommends you to visit

How To Gauge The Volatility Of A Stock Market Investment

Do Your Research
You can find a great deal of information in the stock tables of your local newspaper, or your favorite financial industry publication. Those stock tables contain a wealth of information you can use to gauge the volatility of a stock market investment. Turn to the stock table in your favorite financial publication. Locate the 52-week high and low for each stock you plan to invest in.

Compare the 52-week high for the stock to the 52-week low. The difference between the 52-week high and the low is a good indicator of how volatile the stock has been over the last year, and how volatile it is likely to be in the future.

Contact the Company
Contact the investor relations department at each company and request a copy of the annual report. Some companies publish these reports online, so you might be able to find past annual reports on the company’s website. If not, check the website and find the contact information for the investor relations department.

Review the price history of the stock as shown in the annual report. A wide spread between the annual highs and lows for the stock is an indication of a highly volatile stock. A company whose share price has been more consistent has shown far less volatility.

Practice on Paper
Create a paper portfolio and track your stocks over a period of several months. List each stock on a separate line and list the daily or weekly price in each column. Tracking the stock price over time will give you a good indication of how volatile the stock is.

While nothing can totally eliminate the inherent volatility of investing in the stock market, there are a number of strategies you can use to reduce the risks of the stock market and increase your odds of finding a winning investment.